P. Wesley Schultz, Ph.D.
P. Wesley Schultz, Ph.D.
Dean of Graduate Studies and Research

Office: Craven Hall 5102
Phone: (760) 750-8045
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Wesley Schultz is Professor of Psychology at CSUSM, where he teaches courses in social psychology and statistics. He earned his bachelor's degree from the University of California, Irvine in 1990, and his Ph.D. from Claremont Graduate University in 1995.

Professor Schultz is a social psychologist, whose research focuses on social influence and behavior change. Much of his research involves the application of social psychological principles or methods to understand and solve social problems. Recent projects include studies on environmental programs (e.g., energy conservation, water conservation, recycling, and green marketing), the behavioral dimensions of climate change, cross-cultural research on environmental attitudes, and longitudinal research on programs aimed at encouraging underrepresented students to pursue careers in science.

Current Research:

At a general level, my research involves the application of social psychological theory and methods to the understanding and solution of social problems. At a theoretical level, I am interested in social cognitive processes, individual differences in social cognition, and social influence. Recent projects include laboratory experiments on implicit environmental attitudes, lab and field research on stereotypes and stereotype threat, field research on environmental programs, studies on normative social influence, and cross-cultural research on the relationship between culture, attitudes, and behavior.

Here is a partial list of some of the projects currently underway in the Applied Social Psychology Laboratory at CSUSM:

  • Normative social influence: This is a continuing line of research, building on our previous studies showing the strong influence of social norms on behavior. Current studies are examining the causal links between normative information, normative beliefs, referent groups, and behaviors.
  • Research on climate change: We are currently working on a series of studies funded by the National Science Foundation. Together with researchers from USD, and in partnership with SDG&E, we are testing different ways to use real-time feedback to encourage residents in the San Diego region to use electricity efficiently. This work is being conducted in collaboration with Dr. Mica Estrada, and includes several CSUSM graduate students (Joey Schmitt, Baylee Moore).
  • Longitudinal research on the development of environmental attitudes: In previous studies, we have created several tools for measuring connectedness with nature (click here to download the FlexiTwins game for PC, or visit the itunes store to download our iPad app). Using these tools, we are currently studying the childhood experiences that are associated with later-life attitudes, concerns, and behaviors related to environmental protection. This work is being conducted in collaboration with Coral Bruni.
  • Applied social marketing projects: Over the past few years, we have been actively involved in the application of social psychological principles to environmental behaviors in California and across the nation. We have been involved in projects for a range of organizations, including CalEPA, the Environmental Protection Agency’s ENERGY STAR program, OPOWER, and Keep America Beautiful.
  • Issues of diversity and underrepresentation: A multi-disciplinary research team led by Dr. Schultz is tracking the academic pathways of more then 1000 science students from underrepresented groups. This longitudinal study examines the benefits of participating in an NIH-funded program (RISE). Collaborators on this project include Dr. Mica Estrada, Dr. Anna Woodock, Dr. Paul Hernandez, and Maria Aguilar.

For the 2016/17 academic year, Dr. Schultz will be serving as Dean of Graduate Studies and Research. He will not be teaching. 

Curriculum Vitae

My current CV is available as a PDF.


Selected Journal Articles and Book Chapters:

* designates my student at the time the work was completed.

Milfont, T., & Schultz, P. W. (in press). Culture and the natural environment. Current Opinion in Psychology (Special Issue on Culture).

Woodcock, A., Hernandez, P., & Schultz, P. W. (in press). Diversifying science: Intervention programs moderate the effect of stereotype threat on motivation and career choice. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Bain, P. …Schultz, P. W., Einarsdóttir, G., & Saviolidis, N. (in press). How the co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action across the world. Nature: Climate Change.

Schultz, P. W., *Messina, A., *Tronu, G., *Limas, E., & Gupta, R., & Estrada, M. (in press). Personalized normative feedback and the moderating role of personal norms: A field experiment to reduce residential water consumption. Environment and Behavior.

Bruni, C., Winter, P., Schultz, P., Omoto, A., & Tabanico, J. (in press). Getting to know nature: Connecting youth to nature through the get to know your wild neighbors program. Environmental Education Research.

Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., & Schultz, P. W. (2016). Research designs: Conducting research on environmental issues. In R. Gifford (Ed.), Research methods for environmental psychology (pp. 53-70). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Nolan, J., & Schultz, P. W. (2015). Prosocial behavior and environmental action. In D. Schroeder & W. Graziano (Eds.), Handbook of prosocial behavior (pp. 626-652). Oxford University Press.

Tabanico, J. J., Schultz, P. W., & Schmitt, J. (2015). Driving change: Applying theoretical models in social marketing. In D. Stuart (Ed.), Handbook of persuasion and social marketing (Vol. 2, pp. 119-153). Praeger. 

Schultz, P. W., Estrada, M., *Schmitt, J., *Sokoloski, R., & Silva-Send, N. (2015). Using in-home displays to provide smart meter feedback about household electricity consumption: A randomized control trial comparing kilowatts, cost, and social norms. Energy, 90, 351-358.

Schultz, P. W., Colehour, J., Vohr, J., Bonn, L., Bullock, A., & Sadler, A. (2015). Using social marketing to spur the adoption of ENERGY STAR-certified LED lighting. Social Marketing Quarterly, 21, 61-78.

Sintov, N., & Schultz, P. W. (2015). Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science. Frontiers in Personality and Social Psychology, 6, article 410. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00410. Available online through open access at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391202/pdf/fpsyg-06-00410.pdf

Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., & Schultz, P. W. (2014). Tailored panel management: A theory-based approach to building and maintaining participant commitment to a longitudinal study. Evaluation Review. 38, 3-28.

Schultz, P. W. (2014). Strategies for promoting proenvironmental behavior: Lots of tools but few instructions. European Psychologist, 19, 107-117.  [Special Issue on Sustainability]. Doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000163. 

Bator, R., Tabanico, J., Walton, M., & Schultz, P. W. (2014). Energy conservation in a public space: The role of implied norms and explicit messages. Social Influence, 9, 69-82.  DOI:10.1080/15534510.2013.778213

Schultz, P. W., Milfont, T., *Chance, R., *Tronu, G., Luis, S., Ando, K., Rasool, F., & Roose, P. L., Ogunbode, D., Castro, J., & Gouveia, V. (2014). Cross-cultural evidence for spatial bias in beliefs about environmental problems. Environment and Behavior, 46, 266-301. doi: 10.1177/0013916512458579

Van Vugt, M., Griskevicius, V., & Schultz, P. W. (2014). Naturally green: Harnessing “stone age” biases to foster environmental conservation behavior. Social Issues and Policy Review, 8, 1-32.

Hernandez, P. R., Schultz, P. W., Estrada, M., *Chance, R., & Woodcock, W. (2013). Sustaining optimal motivation: A longitudinal analysis of interventions to broaden participation of underrepresented students in STEM. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 89-107. doi: 10.1037/a0029691

Schultz, P. W., Bator, R., Tabanico, J., *Bruni, C., Large, L. B. (2013). Littering in context: Personal and environmental predictors of littering behavior. Environment and Behavior, 45, 35 - 59. doi: 10.1177/0013916511412179  

Woodcock, A., Hernandez, P., Estrada, M., & Schultz, P. W. (2012). The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: Domain identification and attrition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 635-646. doi: 10.1037/a0029120

Schultz, P. W., & Kaiser, F. G. (2012). Promoting proenvironmental behavior. In S. Clayton (Ed.), Handbook of environmental and conservation psychology (pp. 556-580). Oxford University Press.

Schultz, P. W. (2011). Conservation means behavior. Conservation Biology, 25, 1080-1083.

Schultz, P. W., Hernandez, P., Woodcock, A., Estrada, M., *Chance, R., *Aguilar, M., & Serpe, R. (2011). Patching the pipeline: Reducing educational disparities in the sciences through minority training programs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33, 95-114. 

Schultz, P. W. (2011, April). The cave of truth. Score, 23(2), 4. Available online at: https://www.dropbox.com/s/wd0cadbqc4yocxf/Cave_of_Truth2011.pdf

Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., Hernandez, P., & Schultz, P. W. (2011). Toward a social influence framework that explains minority student integration into the scientific community. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 206-222.

Göckeritz, S., Schultz, P. W., & *Rendón, T., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N., & Griskevicius, V. (2010). Descriptive normative beliefs and conservation behavior: The moderating role of personal involvement and injunctive normative beliefs. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 514-523.

Bruni, C., & Schultz, P. W. (2010). Implicit beliefs about self and nature: Evidence from an IAT game. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 95-102.

Schultz, P. W., & *Tabanico, J. T. (2009). Criminal beware: A social norms perspective on posting public warning signs. Criminology, 47, 1201-1222.

*Nolan, J., Schultz, P. W., Cialdini, R. B., Griskevicius, V., & Goldstein, N. (2008). Normative social influence is underdetected. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 913-923.

Schultz, P. W., *Khazian, A., & *Zaleski, A. (2008). Using normative social influence to promote conservation among hotel guests. Social Influence, 3, 4-23.

Schultz, P. W., *Nolan, J., Cialdini, R., Goldstein, N., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms.  Psychological Science, 18, 429-434.

Schultz, P. W., & *Tabanico, J. (2007). Self, identity, and the natural environment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1219-1247.

Schultz, P. W., *Shriver, C., *Tabanico, J., & *Khazian, A. (2004). Implicit connections with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 31-42.

Schultz, P. W., & Zelezny, L. (2003). Reframing environmental messages to be congruent with American values. Human Ecology Review, 10, 126-136.

Schultz, P. W. (2002). Inclusion with nature: Understanding the psychology of human-nature interactions. In P. Schmuck, & P. W. Schultz (Eds.), The psychology of sustainable development (pp. 61-78). New York: Kluwer.

Schultz, P. W. (2002). Knowledge, education, and household recycling: Examining the knowledge-deficit model of behavior change. In T. Dietz & P. Stern (Eds.), New tools for environmental protection (pp. 67-82). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences.

Schultz P. W., & Searleman, A. (2002). Rigidity of thought and behavior: 100 years of research. Psychology Monographs, 128, 165-207.

Schultz, P. W. (2001). Assessing the structure of environmental concern: Concern for self, other people, and the biosphere. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 1-13.

Schultz, P. W. (2000). Empathizing with nature: The effects of perspective-taking on concern for environmental issues. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 391-406.

Schultz, P. W., & Zelezny, L. (1999). Values as predictors of environmental attitudes: Evidence for consistency across 14 countries. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 255-265.

Schultz, P. W. (1999). Changing behavior with normative feedback interventions: A field experiment of curbside recycling. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 25-36.

Schultz, P. W., Stone, W. F., & Christie, R. (1997). Authoritarianism and mental rigidity: The Einstellung problem revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 3-9.

Books and Edited Volumes:

McKenzie-Mohr, D., Lee, N., Schultz, P. W., & Kotler, P. (2012). Social marketing to protect the environment: What works. Thousand Oaks, Sage.

Smith, J. E., Louis, W., & Schultz, P. W. (2011). Social influence in action. [Special Issue]. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Available online at: http://gpi.sagepub.com/content/14/5.toc.

Oskamp, S., & Schultz, P. W. (2005). Attitudes and opinions (3rd). Mahawa , NJ: Erlbaum.

Schmuck, P., & Schultz, P. W. (2002). The psychology of sustainable development. Norwell, MA: Kluwer.

Zelezny, L., & Schultz, P. W. (2000). Theory and research on environmental attitudes and behavior. [Special Edition]. Journal of Social Issues.

Schultz, P. W., & Oskamp, S. (2000). Social psychology: An applied perspective. Upper Saddle Rive r, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Oskamp, S., & Schultz, P. W. (1998). Applied social psychology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Copies of publications are available upon request.

Photo Gallery

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